Theories of Surplus Value (Marx-Engels Collection Book 1)
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Theories of Surplus Value is Karl Marx's critique and comparison of the ideas and writings of Classical and Pre-Classical economists. It was compiled by his student Karl Kautsky shortly after his death. This is a must read for anyone interested in understanding the Marxian economics. This edition is an electronic version of the edition published by Progress Publishers in the 1970's.
employed. This assertion contains almost as many falsehoods as words. Firstly the rate of profit isby no means solely determined by the rate of surplus-value. But more about this shortly. First of all, it is wrong to say that the rate of surplus-value depends solely on the productivity of labour. Given the productivity of labour, the rate of surplus-value alters according to the length of the surplus labour-time. Hence the rate of surplus-value depends not only on the productivity of labour but
use-value, the total sum of commodities loses some of its use-value under the conditions assumed. However, we are not speaking of crisis here in so far as it arises from disproportionate production, that is to say, the disproportion in the distribution of social labour between the individual spheres of production. This can only be dealt with in connection with the competition of capitals. In that context it has already been stated that the rise or fall of market-value which is caused by this
find out the way in which it can be employed with the greatest advantage.’ “Again. ‘Those, therefore, who have the command of more food than they themselves can consume, are always willing to exchange the surplus, or, what is the same thing, the price of it, for gratifications of another kind. What is over and above satisfying the limited desire, is given for the amusement of those desires which cannot be satisfied, but seem to be altogether endless. The poor, in order to obtain food, exert
agricultural implements for 2/4 of a yard. Of these 6/4 yards, the machinery manufacturer has to consume 1/3 for labour added, and to expend 2/3 for the constant capital laid out in the spinning machine and the agricultural implements. 6/4 however=18/12 So the machine builder would have 6/12 of a yard ||292| again for consumption, 12/12 or 1 yard to convert into constant capital. (Of the 2 5/6 yards not yet consumed, 1/2 yard therefore has gone. 14/6 yards are left, or 2 2/6, or 2 1/3 yards.)
ed., Moscow, 1954, p. 29). * * * Theories of Surplus-Value was first published by Kautsky in 1905-10, and since then has been more than once republished in this Kautsky edition both in German and in other languages; it has been published several times in Russian. The Kautsky edition has many radical defects. Setting out from the totally false assumption that the manuscript Theories of Surplus-Value was devoid of any harmonious plan and was something of a “chaos”, Kautsky subjected it to an